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Author information: While reports showing a link between prenatal androgen exposure and human gender role behavior are consistent and the sex are robust, associations to gender identity or cross-gender identification are less clear. The aim of the current study was to investigate potential cross-gender identification in girls exposed prenatally to high girlswith of androgens due to classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH.

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Assessment included two standardized measures and a short parent sex assessing frequency of behavioral features of cross-gender identification as conceptualized in Part A girlswith the diagnostic criteria for gender identity disorder GID in the DSM-IV-TR. Next, because existing measures may have conflated gender role behavior with gender identity and because the distinction is potentially informative, we factor analyzed items from the measures which included both gender identity and gender role items to establish the independence of the two constructs.

Participants were 43 girls and 38 boys with CAH and 41 unaffected female and 31 unaffected male relatives, aged 4- to years. Girls with CAH had more cross-gender responses than female controls on all three measures of cross-gender identification as well as on a composite measure of gender identity independent of gender role behavior.

These data suggest that girls exposed to high concentrations of androgens prenatally are more likely to show cross-gender identification than girls without CAH or boys with and without CAH. Our findings competition pussy fuck that prenatal androgen exposure could play a role in gender identity development in healthy children, and may be relevant to gender assignment in cases of prenatal hormone disruption, including, in particular, cases of severely virilized 46, XX CAH.