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Campagne liv. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends gif colleagues.

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Learn more. Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus violated Bt toxins have been widely and successfully deployed for the control of target pests, while allowing a substantial reduction in insecticide use.

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The HDR strategy relies on the mating frequency between susceptible and resistant individuals, so either partial dominance of resistant alleles or nonrandom mating in the pest population itself could elevate the pace of resistance evolution.

Resistance evolution is hastened whenever the order of magnitude of model violations exceeds the initial frequency of resistant alleles. Freeoldersexmovies also show that the existence of a fitness cost for resistant individuals on the refuge crop cannot gif overcome the effect of violated HDR assumptions.

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We propose a parametrically explicit framework that enables both comparison of various field situations and model inference. Using this model, we propose novel porn xxx vido estimators of the violated of resistance evolution and time to loss of controlwhose simple calculation relies on the observed change in resistance allele frequency.

If susceptible alleles S in the pest are dominant and rare resistant mutants R are completely recessive, then rare resistant individuals RR emerging from Bt plants will mate preferentially with susceptible individuals SS emerging from refuge plants.

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Theory shows that optimal efficiency of the HDR strategy is guaranteed when: